Monday, November 3, 2014

University of Maryland, College Park

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"University of Maryland" redirects here. For other uses, see University of Maryland (disambiguation).
Coordinates: 38°59′15.0″N 76°56′24.0″W
University of Maryland,
College Park
Seal of the University of Maryland (Trademark of the University of Maryland)
Established 1856
Type Flagship Public university
Land-Grant
Sea-Grant
Space-Grant
Endowment $874 million (FY2013)[1]
President Wallace Loh[2][3]
Provost Mary Ann Rankin
Academic staff 4,248[4]
Admin. staff 5,134[4]
Students 37,631[4]
Undergraduates 26,826[4]
Postgraduates 10,805[4]
Location College Park, Maryland, United States
38°59′17″N 76°56′41″W
Campus Suburban, 1,250 acres (5.1 km2)[4]
Colors Red, White, Black, and Gold[5]
                       
Athletics NCAA Division IBig Ten
MAISA
Nickname Terrapins, Terps
Mascot Testudo
Affiliations University System of Maryland
AAU
Fields Institute
CIC
CUWMA
APLU
ORAU
URA
Universitas 21
Website www.umd.edu
University of Maryland Logo
The University of Maryland, College Park (often referred to as The University of Maryland, Maryland, UM, UMD, or UMCP) is a public research university[6] located in the city of College Park in Prince George's County, Maryland, approximately 8 miles (13 km) from Washington, D.C. Founded in 1856, the University of Maryland is the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland. It is considered a Public Ivy institution, meaning it is a public university with a quality of education comparable to those of the private Ivy League. With a fall 2010 enrollment of more than 37,000 students, over 100 undergraduate majors, and 120 graduate programs, Maryland is the largest university in the state and the largest in the Washington Metropolitan Area.[4][7] It is a member of the Association of American Universities and competes athletically as a member of the Big Ten Conference.
The University of Maryland's proximity to the nation's capital has resulted in strong research partnerships with the Federal government. Many members of the faculty receive research funding and institutional support from agencies such as the National Institutes of Health, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and the Department of Homeland Security.
The operating budget of the University of Maryland in fiscal year 2009 was projected to be approximately US$1.531 billion.[8] For the same fiscal year, the University of Maryland received a total of $518 million in research funding, surpassing its 2008 mark by $118 million.[9] As of May 11, 2012, the university's "Great Expectations" campaign had exceeded $950 million in private donations.[10]

History

Early history

On March 6, 1856, the forerunner of today's University of Maryland was chartered as the Maryland Agricultural College. Two years later, Charles Benedict Calvert, a descendant of the Barons Baltimore, fervent believer in agricultural education, and a future U.S. Congressman, purchased 420 acres (1.7 km2) of the Riverdale Plantation in College Park for $21,000. Calvert founded the school later that year with money earned by the sale of stock certificates. On October 5, 1859, the first 34 students entered the Maryland Agricultural College, including four of Charles Calvert's sons, George, Charles, William, and Eugene. The keynote speaker on opening day was Joseph Henry, the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. [11]
In July 1862, the same month that the Maryland Agricultural College awarded its first degrees, President Lincoln signed the Morrill Land Grant Act.[12] The legislation provided federal funds to schools that taught agriculture or engineering, or provided military training. Taking advantage of the opportunity, the school became a land grant college in February 1864 after the Maryland legislature voted to approve the Morrill Act.[11]

Civil War

A few months after accepting the grant, the Maryland Agricultural College proved to be an important site in the Civil War. In April 1864, General Ambrose E. Burnside and 6,000 soldiers of the Union's Ninth Army Corps camped on the MAC campus. The troops were en route to reinforce General Ulysses S. Grant's forces in Virginia.[13]
Later that summer, around 400 Confederate soldiers led by General Bradley T. Johnson stayed on the grounds while preparing to take part in a raid against Washington. A local legend claims that soldiers were warmly welcomed by university President Henry Onderdonk, a Confederate sympathizer, and that the cavalrymen were thrown a party on the campus nicknamed "The Old South Ball." The next morning the soldiers rode off to cut the lines of communication between Washington and Baltimore.[14]
Financial problems forced the increasingly desperate administrators to sell off 200 acres (81 ha) of land, and the continuing decline in student enrollment sent the Maryland Agricultural College into bankruptcy. For the next two years the campus was used as a boys preparatory school.[11]
Morrill Hall, built in 1898, is the oldest academic building on campus.
Following the Civil War, the Maryland legislature pulled the college out of bankruptcy, and in February 1866 assumed half ownership of the school. The college thus became in part a state institution. George Washington Custis Lee, son of Confederate General Robert E. Lee, was appointed president of the college by the Board of Trustees, but due to public outcry declined the position. By October 1867, the school reopened with 11 students. In the next six years, enrollment continued to grow, and the school's debt was finally paid off. Twenty years later, the school's reputation as a research institution began, as the federally funded Agricultural Experiment Station was established there. During the same period, a number of state laws granted the college regulatory powers in several areas—including controlling farm disease, inspecting feed, establishing a state weather bureau and geological survey, and housing the board of forestry.[11] In 1888, the college began its first official intercollegiate baseball games against rivals St. John's College and the United States Naval Academy. Baseball, however, had been played at the college for decades before the first "official" games were recorded. The first fraternity chapter at Maryland, the Eta chapter of Phi Sigma Kappa, was established in 1897, and Morrill Hall (the oldest instructional building still in use on campus) was built the following year.[11]

The Great Fire of 1912

The campus ablaze during the 1912 fire
The remains of the administration building.
Plaque showing the original layout of campus before the Great Fire.
On November 29, 1912, around 10:30 pm, a fire, probably due to faulty electric wiring, broke out in the attic of the newest administration building, where a Thanksgiving dance was being held. The approximately 80 students on the premises evacuated themselves safely, and then formed a makeshift bucket brigade. The fire departments summoned from nearby Hyattsville and Washington, D.C., arrived too late. Fanned by a strong southwest wind, the fire destroyed the barracks where the students were housed, all the school's records, and most of the academic buildings, leaving only Morrill Hall untouched. The loss was estimated at $250,000 (about $5.8 million in 2012 U.S. dollars) despite no injuries or fatalities. The devastation was so great that many never expected the university to reopen. University President Richard Silvester resigned, brokenhearted.[11]
However, the students refused to give up. All but two returned to the university after the break and insisted on classes continuing as usual. Students were housed by families in neighboring towns who were compensated by the university until housing could be rebuilt, although a new administration building was not built until the 1940s.[11]
A large brick and concrete compass inlaid in the ground designates the former center of campus as it existed in 1912. Lines engraved in the compass point to each building that was destroyed in the Thanksgiving Day fire. The intersection of the lines on the compass are known as "The Point of Failure". A well-known legend holds that any student who walks upon the "point of failure" will not graduate from the University of Maryland in four years.

Modern history

The University of Maryland campus as it appeared in 1938 before the dramatic expansion engineered by President Byrd
The state took complete control of the school in 1916, and consequently the institution was renamed Maryland State College. Also that year, the first female students enrolled at the school. On April 9, 1920, the college merged with the established professional schools in Baltimore to form the University of Maryland. The graduate school on the College Park campus awarded its first PhD degrees, and the University's enrollment reached 500 students in the same year. In 1925 the University was accredited by the Association of American Universities.[11]
During World War II, Maryland was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission.[15]
By the time the first black students enrolled at the University in 1951, enrollment had grown to nearly 10,000 students—4,000 of whom were women. Prior to 1951, many black students in Maryland were enrolled at the University of Maryland, Eastern Shore, which was almost shut down in 1947 due to lack of access, low quality education, and the fear among some black and white leaders that Eastern Shore was allowed to remain a college by the Regents of the University of Maryland solely to keep black students in segregated, inferior institutions.[16]
In 1957 President Wilson H. Elkins made a push to increase academic standards at the University. His efforts resulted in the creation of one of the first Academic Probation Plans. The first year the plan went into effect, 1,550 students (18% of the total student body) faced expulsion. Since then, academic standards at the school have steadily risen. Recognizing the improvement in academics, Phi Beta Kappa established a chapter at the university in 1964. In 1969, the university was elected to the Association of American Universities. The school continued to grow, and by the fall of 1985 reached an enrollment of 38,679.[11] Like many colleges during the Vietnam War, the university was the site of student protests and had curfews enforced by the National Guard.[17]
In 1970 the Maryland General Assembly established a five-campus University of Maryland network comprising University of Maryland at Baltimore, University of Maryland Baltimore County, University of Maryland, College Park, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, and the University of Maryland University College.
In a massive 1988 restructuring of the state higher education system, the school was designated as the flagship campus of the newly formed University of Maryland System (later changed to the University System of Maryland in 1997) and was formally named University of Maryland, College Park. All of the 5 campuses in the former network were designated as formally distinct campuses in the new system. However, in 1997 the Maryland General Assembly passed legislation allowing the University of Maryland, College Park, to be known simply as the University of Maryland, recognizing the campus' role as the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland.[18]
The other University System of Maryland institutions with the name "University of Maryland" are not satellite campuses of the University of Maryland, College Park. The University of Maryland, Baltimore, is the only other school permitted to confer certain degrees from the "University of Maryland". This is because the Baltimore school offers primarily graduate degrees in disciplines not taught in College Park, such as nursing, dentistry, law, and medicine. The relationship between the University of Maryland, College Park, and the University of Maryland, Baltimore, is akin to the relationship of the University of California, Berkeley, to the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), which also primarily offers graduate programs that Berkeley does not provide.

21st century

On September 24, 2001, a tornado struck the College Park campus, killing two female students and causing $15 million in damage to 12 buildings.[19] That same year brought the opening of the Clarice Smith Performing Arts Center, the largest single building ever constructed by the State of Maryland, which replaced Tawes Theatre as the premier fine arts center on campus.[20]
In 2004, the university began constructing the 150-acre (61 ha) "M Square Research Park," which is the largest research park inside the Capital Beltway, and includes facilities affiliated with the U.S. Department of Defense, Food and Drug Administration, and the new National Center for Weather and Climate Prediction, affiliated with The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).[21]
The university launched its 7-year campaign to raise $1 billion via private donations, called "Great Expectations," in 2006.[22] The university published a new 10-year strategic plan in 2008,[23] which includes plans for the East Campus Redevelopment Project which would bring, among other things, on-campus graduate student housing and a state-of-the-art music and entertainment center to campus.[24]
In May 2010, ground was broken on a new $128-million, 158,068-square-foot (14,685.0 m2) Physical Science Complex, including an ARRA-funded advanced quantum science laboratory, which the university hopes will be the premier facility for such research in the world.[25]
The university's administration has recently become embroiled in the debate over the construction of a light-rail line through campus which would give the University another link to the DC Metro System.[26][27] On August 16, 2010, Wallace Loh, the Provost of the University of Iowa, was named President of the University effective November 1.[3]

Academics

Profile

The University of Maryland offers 127 undergraduate degrees and 112 graduate degrees in thirteen different colleges and schools:
Undergraduate education is centered around both a student's chosen academic program and the selection of core coursework to fulfill general education requirements.[28] For Spring 2010, the average undergraduate GPA for women was 3.22 and 3.05 for undergraduate men.[29]

Programs

A stairway in south campus.
The university hosts "Living and Learning" programs which allow students with similar academic interests to live in the same residential community, take specialized courses, and perform research in those areas of expertise. An example is the University Honors College, which is geared towards students with exceptional academic talents. The Honors College welcomes students into a community of faculty and intellectually gifted undergraduates committed to acquiring a broad and balanced education. The Honors College offers seven living and learning programs: Advanced Cyber Security, Digital Cultures & Creativity, Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Honors Humanities, Gemstone, Integrated Life Sciences, and University Honors.[30]
Digital Cultures and Creativity (DCC) is one of the six University of Maryland living and learning honors programs offered to incoming honors-level students. Started in 2009, the program is currently directed by technologically focused, interdisciplinary artist Hasan Elahi and run by distinguished faculty and graduate students. DCC students are housed in Queen Annes Hall and take a 16 credit, 2 year interdisciplinary curriculum centered on digital culture and innovative thinking in the digital world.[31]
Entrepreneurship and Innovation Program (EIP) is a living and learning honors program for Honors College freshmen and sophomores with an interdisciplinary, living and learning education to help build the entrepreneurial mindsets, skill sets, and relationships invaluable to developing innovative, impactful solutions to today's problems.[32] Through experiential learning, dynamic courses, seminars, workshops, competitions, and volunteerism, students receive a world-class education in entrepreneurship and innovation. In collaboration with faculty and mentors who have successfully launched new ventures, all student teams develop an innovative idea and write a product plan.[33]
Honors Humanities is the University of Maryland’s honors program for talented beginning undergraduates with interests in the humanities and creative arts. The selective two-year living-learning program combines a small liberal arts college environment with the dynamic resources of a large research university.[34]
The Gemstone Program at the University of Maryland is a multidisciplinary four-year research program for select undergraduate honors students of all majors. Under guidance of faculty mentors and Gemstone staff, teams of students design, direct and conduct research, often but not exclusively exploring the interdependence of science and technology with society.[35]
The Integrated Life Sciences (ILS) Program at the University of Maryland seeks to engage and inspire honors students interested in all aspects of biological research and biomedicine. The College of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences has partnered with the Honors College to create the ILS program, which offers nationally recognized innovations in the multidisciplinary training of life science and pre-medical students. The overall objective of the ILS experience is to prepare students for future successes in the most challenging programs in graduate, medical, dental, or other professional schools.[36]
University Honors is the largest living-learning program in the Honors College and allows students the greatest independence in shaping their education. University Honors welcomes students into a close-knit community of the University’s top faculty and intellectually gifted undergraduates committed to acquiring a broad and balanced education.[37] Students choose from over 130 engaging seminars exploring interdisciplinary topics in three broad areas: Contemporary Issues and Challenges, Arts and Sciences in Today's World, and Using the World as a Classroom.[38]
The College Park Scholars programs are two-year living-learning programs for first- and second-year students. Students are selected to enroll in one of 12 thematic programs: Arts; Business, Society, and the Economy; Environment, Technology, and Economy; Global Public Health; International Studies; Life Sciences; Media, Self, and Society; Public Leadership; Science and Global Change; Science, Discovery, and the Universe; Science, Technology, and Society. Students live together in dorms located in the Cambridge Community on North Campus.[39]
A student working on McKeldin Mall.
The nation's first living-learning entrepreneurship program, Hinman CEOs, is geared toward students who are interested in starting their own business.[40] Students from all academic disciplines live together and are provided the resources to explore new business ventures.
The QUEST (Quality Enhancement Systems and Teams) Honors Fellows Program engages undergraduate students from business, engineering, and computer, mathematical, and physical sciences. QUEST Students participate in courses focused on cross-functional collaboration, innovation, quality management, and teamwork.[41] The Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering (CEE) has also been long considered an outstanding engineering division of the university since its inception in 1908.[42]
Other living-learning programs include: CIVICUS, a two-year program in the College of Behavioral and Social Sciences based on the five principles of civil society;[43] Global Communities, a program that immerses students in a diverse culture (students from all over the world live in a community),[44] and the Language House,[45] which allows students pursuing language courses to live and practice with other students learning the same language.

Faculty

The university's faculty has included four Nobel Prize laureates. The earliest recipient, Juan Ramón Jiménez, was a professor of Spanish language and literature and won the 1956 prize for literature. Four decades later, physics professor William Daniel Phillips won the prize in physics for his contributions to laser cooling, a technique to slow the movement of gaseous atoms in 1997. In 2005, professor emeritus of economics and public policy Thomas Schelling was awarded the prize in economics for his contributions to game theory. In 2006, adjunct professor of physics and senior astrophysicist at NASA John C. Mather was awarded the prize in physics alongside George Smoot for their work in the discovery of blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation. In addition, two University of Maryland alumni are Nobel Prize laureates; Herbert Hauptman won the 1985 prize in chemistry and Raymond Davis Jr. won the 2002 prize in physics.
The University also has many notable academics in other fields of science. Professor of mathematics Sergei Novikov won the Fields Medal in 1970 followed by alumnus Charles Fefferman in 1978. Alumnus George Dantzig won the 1975 National Medal of Science for his work in the field of linear programming. Professor of physics Michael Fisher won the Wolf Prize in 1980 (together with Kenneth G. Wilson and Leo Kadanoff) and the IUPAP Boltzmann Medal in 1983. James A. Yorke, a Distinguished University Professor of Mathematics and Physics and chair of the Mathematics Department won the 2003 Japan Prize for his work in chaotic systems.

Research

On October 14, 2004, the university added 150 acres (61 ha) in an attempt to create the largest research park inside the Washington, D.C., Capital Beltway, known as "M Square."[46] The university completed construction on a new Bioscience Research Building on campus in May 2007. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is presently constructing the new National Center for Weather and Climate Prediction on site in M Square. It is scheduled to be completed in early 2009. The University's Physics Department constructed, operates, and maintains the world's largest isochronous synchrocyclotron.
Glenn L. Martin Institute of Technology
The University of Maryland's location near Washington, D.C. has created strong research partnerships, especially with government agencies. Many of the faculty members have funding from federal agencies such as the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health,[47] NASA,[48] the Department of Homeland Security,[49] the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and the National Security Agency. These relationships have created numerous research opportunities for the university including: *taking the lead in the nationwide research initiative into the transmission and prevention of human and avian influenza[50]
  • creating a new research center to study the behavioral and social foundations of terrorism with funding from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security
  • launching the joint NASA-University of Maryland Deep Impact spacecraft in early January 2005.
The University of Maryland Libraries provide access to and assistance in the use of the scholarly information resources required to meet the education, research and service missions of the University.
The University of Maryland is a major international center for the study of language, hosting the largest and most integrated community of language scientists in North America, including more than 200 faculty, researchers, and graduate students, who collectively comprise the Maryland Language Science Center under the leadership of Professor Colin Phillips. Since 2008 the university has hosted an NSF-IGERT interdisciplinary graduate training program that has served as a catalyst for broader integrative efforts in language science, with 50 participating students and contributions from 50 faculty. The University of Maryland is also home to two key ‘migrator’ centers that connect basic research to critical national needs in education and national security: the Center for Advanced Study of Language (CASL) and the National Foreign Language Center (NFLC). The University of Maryland’s position as the premier public research university in the Washington DC area, with access to government, policy-makers, and industry, plus a melting pot of language diversity, provides enviable opportunities for linking basic science to real-world applications for language.
The Center for American Politics and Citizenship provides citizens and policy-makers with research on critical issues related to the United States' political institutions, processes, and policies. CAPC is a non-partisan, non-profit research institution within the Department of Government and Politics in the College of Behavioral and Social Sciences.
The Space Systems Laboratory researches human-robotic interaction for astronautics applications, and includes the only neutral buoyancy facility at a university.
The Center for Technology and Systems Management (CTSM) has the mission to advance the state of the art of technology and systems analysis for the benefit of people and the environment. The focus has been always on enhancing safety, efficiency and effectiveness by performing reliability, risk, uncertainty or decision analysis studies.
The Joint Global Change Research Institute was formed in 2001 by the University of Maryland and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The institute focuses on multidisciplinary approaches of climate change research.
The Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering (CALCE) was formed in 1985 at the University of Maryland. CALCE is dedicated to providing a knowledge and resource base to support the development of competitive electronic components, products and systems.